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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457602

RESUMO

Fecal contamination in natural water sources is a common problem in low-income countries. Several health risks are associated with unprotected water sources, such as gastrointestinal infections caused by parasites, viruses, and bacteria. Moreover, antibiotic-resistant bacteria in water sources have become an increasing problem worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial pathogens present in water within a rural context in Ecuador, along with the efficiency of black ceramic water filters (BCWFs) as a sustainable household water treatment. We monitored five natural water sources that were used for human consumption in the highlands of Ecuador and analyzed the total coliforms and E. coli before and after BCWF installation. The results indicated a variable bacterial contamination (29-300 colony-forming units/100mL) in all unfiltered samples, and they were considered as high risk for human consumption, but after filtration, no bacteria were present. Moreover, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli with blaTEM, blaCTX-M9, and blaCTX-M1 genes, and two E. coli classified in the clonal complex ST10 (ST98) were detected in two of the locations sampled; these strains can severely impact public health. The clonal complex ST10, found in the E. coli isolates, possesses the potential to spread bacteria-resistant genes to humans and animals. The results of the use of BCWFs, however, argue for the filters' potential impact within those contexts, as the BCWFs completely removed even antibiotic-resistant contaminants from the water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Filtração , Animais , Cerâmica , Água Potável/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Equador , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Filtração/métodos , Humanos , beta-Lactamases/genética
2.
Prev Vet Med ; 201: 105608, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279532

RESUMO

We used cattle movement data in Ecuador for 2017 and 2018 to build two types of cattle networks: a network including all cattle movements accounting for a disease of rapid spread like foot and mouth disease and a network including only the cows accounting for brucellosis, a disease of slow evolution occurring mainly in adult females. Parishes (the smallest geographical units) were considered as nodes and cattle movements between parishes as links. Network indicators calculated at the annual and monthly levels were close for both types of networks. For both networks, the largest strong component at the annual level included > 90% of nodes and the largest weak component included all nodes indicating a very low fragmentation. A percolation analysis indicated that most of the parishes needed to be removed to eliminate the largest strong components. Based on some network characteristics we established that a highly transmissible disease could spread rapidly and that an infection of slower transmission such as brucellosis could spread within local clusters. These features should be taken into account when considering preventing measures in Ecuador in the case of an emerging disease like foot and mouth disease or control measures for an endemic disease like brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Transportes
3.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 140(2): 305-309, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meningitis is listed as one of the diseases requiring compulsory notification in Brazil. It can affect all age groups and also has no seasonality. Cases can be recorded in all months of the year and in all states of Brazil. Despite its importance, the obligation of immediate notification may have been compromised by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on compulsory notifications of meningitis in Brazil and its states during the first wave of the pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an ecological study involving all confirmed cases of meningitis in Brazil, in its regions and in its states. METHODS: Data for the months from 2015 to 2020 were obtained from the database of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN), in the Department of Informatics of the National Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS). The P-score was used to obtain the percentage change in the numbers of cases reported in 2020. RESULTS: A 45.7% reduction in notifications of meningitis in Brazil was observed. Regarding the regions and the states, with the exception of Roraima, all of them showed a negative P-score, with decreasing curves each month. CONCLUSION: The pandemic caused a negative impact on meningitis notifications in Brazil.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Meningite , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Meningite/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 130, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258761

RESUMO

Desmodus rotundus is one of the wild animal species that has benefitted by habitat alteration and its population has increased due to livestock activities. Common vampire bat population management has been implemented across Mexico due to the economic losses to livestock production, inflicted by vampire bat attacks and rabies transmission. Yucatan is one of the seven most impacted states in Mexico by the number of cattle rabies cases per year. However, there is little research on D. rotundus populations such as the frequency and attack patterns to cattle. This study's objective was to analyze the relationship between D. rotundus abundance and number of bovines attacked in livestock landscapes in Yucatan. The study used data gathered by the State Committee for Protection and Promotion of Livestock in Yucatan through the National Campaign for Common Vampire Bat Population Control. Data collected from January 2014 to December 2017 was analyzed using Pearson correlation. Distribution maps on Desmodus rotundus abundance and number of bovines attacked were also created. Higher abundance of Desmodus rotundus and number of cattle attacks were observed in the central region of Yucatan, particularly in Izamal municipality. Positive correlations were found between (1) abundance of Desmodus rotundus and number of cattle in the region, (2) total number of cattle and number of cattle attacked, and (3) abundance of Desmodus rotundus and number of cattle attacked. We can conclude that there is a relationship between Desmodus rotundus abundance and frequency of cattle attacks in most municipalities across Yucatan. Some outstanding exceptions were observed, which require further detailed investigations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Quirópteros , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária
5.
Trop Biomed ; 39(1): 1-10, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35225294

RESUMO

The present study aimed to identify larval trematodes shed by snails found in water bodies used by urban communities in a former schistosomiasis endemic area in the state of Piauí, in the Brazilian semiarid region. A malacological survey was performed followed by analysis of the cercariae shed by the snails after light exposure. Biomphalaria straminea specimens (n=1,224) were obtained from all seven collection sites. Cercariae shed by snails were i) single tailed, in which one type of cercariae was identified ( Echinostoma cercariae), and ii) with bifurcated tail (brevifurcate apharyngeate distome, brevifurcate pharyngeate distome, and longifurcate pharyngeate distome [strigeocercaria]). Brevifurcate apharyngeate distome were further examined and the presence of spikes in swimming membranes enabled the identification of Spirorchiidae cercariae in all individuals, demonstrating the absence of cercariae compatible with Schistosoma mansoni . Nevertheless, the accurate diagnosis of S. mansoni circulation in former endemic areas is still necessary.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Esquistossomose , Animais , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Brasil , Vetores de Doenças , Larva , Schistosoma mansoni , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(2): 69-75, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175137

RESUMO

In pre-Hispanic Mexico, dogs were not identified as an important source of rabies. We know from codexes and chronicles of the conquerors that at that time, rabies cases in humans and domestic animals were caused by local wildlife species such as bats. Canine-rabies virus variant seems to have arrived with Europeans. The first documented case of canine rabies in the Americas is found in Mexico in the Annals of the Holy Inquisition (16th century). During Mexico's independence, cases were frequently reported. In the 19th century the first attempts to control human rabies were made through sanitary measures such as elimination of rabid dogs and applying postexposure vaccination. During the first half of the 20th century, the efficacy of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies was established. However, in Mexico, despite reports of numerous human cases (>70/year), canine vaccination did not have enough coverage. It was only during the 1990s that Mexico made a serious commitment to eliminate dog-transmitted human rabies. Since the beginning, vaccination campaigns have been free and massive. Coverage increased from 7,100,000 doses in 1990 to more than 18,000,000 since 2017. This culminated in the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies cases since 2006. Subsequently, the epidemiology of rabies had changed. Nowadays, it is wildlife species (mainly bats and skunks) that are the source of human rabies. As a mega-biodiverse country Mexico has numerous wildlife species with potential to transmit rabies virus. Thus it is paramount to remain vigilant with respect to canine vaccination campaigns and to promote rabies research in wildlife.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Mephitidae , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Estados Unidos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162146

RESUMO

The Northern Bolivian Altiplano is the fascioliasis endemic area with the reported highest human prevalence and intensities. A multidisciplinary One Health initiative was implemented to decrease infection/reinfection rates detected by periodic monitoring between the ongoing yearly preventive chemotherapy campaigns. Within a One Health axis, the information obtained throughout 35 years of field work on transmission foci and affected rural schools and communities/villages is analysed. Aspects linked to human infection risk are quantified, including: (1) geographical extent of the endemic area, its dynamics, municipalities affected, and its high strategic importance; (2) human population at risk, community development and mortality rates, with emphasis on problems in infancy and gender; (3) characteristics of the freshwater collections inhabited by lymnaeid snail vectors and constituting transmission foci; (4) food infection sources, including population surveys with questionnaire and reference to the most risky edible plant species; (5) water infection sources; (6) household characteristics; (7) knowledge of the inhabitants on Fasciola hepatica and the disease; (8) behavioural, traditional, social, and religious aspects; (9) livestock management. This is the widest and deepest study of this kind ever performed. Results highlight prevention and control difficulties where inhabitants follow century-old behaviours, traditions, and beliefs. Intervention priorities are proposed and discussed.


Assuntos
Fasciolíase , Saúde Única , Animais , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/prevenção & controle , Habitação , Humanos , Gado , Água
8.
J Agromedicine ; 27(2): 193-196, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496713

RESUMO

Rabies is a neglected zoonosis with adverse public health effects. We describe the community engagement in containing a bovine paralytic rabies outbreak in two rural communities of Mexico. We carried out a participatory rapid appraisal using different community participation techniques for 2 weeks, including information sharing, community meetings, prioritization of activities, and training. In addition to the animal census and vaccination, necropsy and immunofluorescence tests were performed to diagnose rabies. Cattle mortality during the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies was 4.5% (15/331); 1446 anti-rebies vacines were applied, directly benefiting 94 families. Members of two rural communities were trained. The continuous exchange of information among the stakeholders allowed us to inform, consult, involve, and empower community members. Community participation played an essential role in identifying a common problem, implementing activities to contain it, and successfully safeguarding public health, animal production, and food security.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Raiva , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Zoonoses
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256409, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350298

RESUMO

Abstract In this research, some plant seeds powder was evaluated to find their potential effect to rule diseases of food poisoning. Antimicrobial effect of five plant seeds was examined contra Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella. pneumonia and Candida albicans by using well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity studies revealed high potential activity of plant seeds powder of Nigella sativa L., cucurbita pepo, Sesamum radiatum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Linum usitatissimum with variable efficiency contra tested microbial strains with concentration of 100 mg/ml, except Sesamum radiatum scored no effect. The T. foenum and N. sativa seed powder showed the largest inhibition zone (24-20 mm) contra K. pneumonia, followed by S. aureus (20-18 mm) and C. albicans (15mm) respectively. The five plant seeds powder exhibited bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects with MIC's 20 and MBC 40 mg/ml against K. pneumonia, and MIC's 40 and MBC 60 mg/ml against S. aureus. The results of this study indicated that plants seeds powder have promising antimicrobial activities and their potential applications in food process. It could be utilized as a natural medicinal alternative instead of chemical substance.


Resumo Nesta pesquisa, o pó de sementes de plantas foi avaliado para encontrar seu efeito potencial no controle de doenças de intoxicação alimentar. O efeito antimicrobiano de cinco sementes de plantas foi examinado contra Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia e Candida albicans usando o método de difusão bem. Estudos de atividade antimicrobiana revelaram alto potencial de atividade de sementes de plantas em pó de Nigella sativa L., Cucurbita pepo, Sesamum radiatum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Linum usitatissimum com eficiência variável contra cepas microbianas testadas com concentração de 100 mg / ml, exceto Sesamum radiatum com pontuação não efeito. O pó de sementes de T. foenum e N. sativa apresentou a maior zona de inibição (24-20 mm) contra K. pneumonia, seguido por S. aureus (20-18 mm) e C. albicans (15 mm), respectivamente. O pó de cinco sementes de plantas exibiu efeitos bacteriostáticos e bactericidas com MIC's 20 e MBC 40 mg / ml contra K. pneumonia, enquanto MIC's 40 e MBC 60 mg / ml contra S. aureus. Os resultados deste estudo indicaram que os pós de sementes de plantas apresentam promissoras atividades antimicrobianas e suas potenciais aplicações em processos alimentícios. Ele poderia ser utilizado como alternativa medicinal natural em vez de substância química.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Sementes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06839, 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356554

RESUMO

This study describes the spontaneous and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol and warns about the effects of the administration of antibiotics to animals that receive ionophores in the feed as growth promoters. A batch with 1,200 finishing pigs fed a diet containing 30ppm of salinomycin received florfenicol (60ppm via feed) to control respiratory diseases. Twenty-seven pigs had difficulty walking, tip-toe walking, muscle tremors, and anorexia seven days after the start of treatment. Twenty-two animals died, 10 recovered, and two were sent to the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of CAV-UDESC to be necropsied. The experimental reproduction of the disease was carried out to clarify the possible influence of florfenicol on salinomycin poisoning using 12 pigs divided into four groups with three animals each, treated for 16 days with diets containing no additives (Group 1), 50ppm of salinomycin (Group 2), 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 3), and 50ppm of salinomycin and 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 4). Only animals in Group 4 became ill. The clinical disease was reproduced from the ingestion of 24.67mg/kg/LW of salinomycin and 19.74mg/kg/LW of florfenicol. Both natural and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol caused a condition of myopathy characterized in histology by hyaline degeneration and floccular necrosis of skeletal fibers, with macrophage infiltrate, associated with the figures of regeneration in skeletal muscles and multifocal areas of the proliferation of fibroblasts, being more intense in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. Therefore, florfenicol can cause the accumulation of ionophore salinomycin in the animal organism, resulting in a condition of toxic myopathy.(AU)


O presente trabalho descreve as intoxicações espontânea e experimental por salinomicina associada ao uso de florfenicol e alerta sobre os efeitos da administração de antibióticos aos animais que recebem ionóforos na ração como promotores de crescimento. Um lote com 1.200 suínos em fase de terminação, alimentados com ração contendo 30ppm de salinomicina, recebeu florfenicol (60ppm via ração) para o controle de doenças respiratórias. Sete dias após o início do tratamento, 27 suínos apresentaram dificuldade de locomoção, "caminhar em brasa", tremores musculares e anorexia. Vinte e dois animais morreram, 10 recuperaram-se e dois foram encaminhados ao Laboratório de Patologia Animal (CAV-UDESC) para serem necropsiados. Para esclarecer a possível influência do florfenicol na toxicidade da salinomicina foi realizada a reprodução experimental da doença utilizando 12 suínos, divididos em 4 grupos com 3 animais cada, tratados por 16 dias com rações contendo: Grupo 1 = sem aditivos, Grupo 2 = 50ppm de salinomicina, Grupo 3 = 40ppm de florfenicol e Grupo 4 = 50ppm de salinomicina e 40ppm de florfenicol. Somente os animais do Grupo 4 adoeceram. A doença clínica foi reproduzida a partir da ingestão de 24,67mg/kg/PV de salinomicina e 19,74 mg/kg/PV de florfenicol. Tanto a intoxicação natural quanto a experimental por salinomicina associada ao uso de florfenicol provocaram um quadro de miopatia caracterizado na histologia por degeneração hialina e necrose flocular das fibras esqueléticas, com infiltrado macrofágico, associada às figuras de regeneração na musculatura esquelética e áreas multifocais de proliferação de fibroblastos, sendo mais intensas nos músculos longissimus dorsi e semimembranoso. Conclui-se que, o florfenicol tem a capacidade de ocasionar o acúmulo do ionóforo salinomicina no organismo animal, resultando em um quadro de miopatia tóxica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Envenenamento/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Miotoxicidade/etiologia , Ionóforos/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal
12.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(3): e20210030, 2022. graf, mapa, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339660

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a zoonosis of global distribution caused by the parasitic trematode Fasciola spp. Infection in humans can occur in areas endemic for animal fascioliasis, suggesting the need for studies on this parasitosis and its determinants. This exploratory study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of bovine fascioliasis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on cases notified between 2015 and 2017 in a state abattoir, located in the municipality of Orleans, and to associate disease occurrence with altitude, temperature, and rainfall. The research was conducted at Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE)/Orleans, SC and Fundação Oswaldo Cruz/Rio de Janeiro, RJ. During the study period, the abattoir received animals from 58 municipalities in that state. Of the animals slaughtered in that period, 10,81% were infected with Fasciola hepatica. Presence of bovine fascioliasis infection was identified in the South and Southeast regions of the state, with higher prevalence rates in the latter. There was an association between low altitudes and higher occurrence of cases in the municipalities assessed. In addition, prevalence of bovine fascioliasis was higher in municipalities with high temperatures and low rainfall. Therefore, these results should be considered for planning disease control measures in the South and Southeast regions of the state of Santa Catarina.


A fasciolose é uma zoonose de distribuição global causada pelo parasita Fasciola spp. Infecções em humanos podem ocorrer em áreas endêmicas para fasciolose animal, sugerindo a necessidade de estudos sobre essa parasitose e seus determinantes. O presente estudo exploratório teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial da fasciolose bovina, no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, a partir de casos notificados entre 2015 e 2017 no abatedouro frigorífico estadual, localizado em Orleans, SC, e associar a ocorrência da doença a altitude, temperatura e precipitação. A pesquisa foi conduzida na Universidade Barriga Verde em Orleans, SC e na Fundação Oswaldo Cruz no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. No período de análise o matadouro recebeu animais de 58 municípios do estado de Santa Catarina. Dos animais abatidos nesse período, 10,81% estavam infectados por Fasciola hepatica. A presença da infecção por fasciolose foi encontrada no Sul no território estudado, com maiores prevalências no Sudeste do estado. Houve uma associação entre baixas altitudes e maior ocorrência de fasciolose nos municípios. A prevalência de fasciolose bovina foi também maior em municípios com altas temperaturas e com baixa pluviosidade. Sendo assim, esses resultados devem ser levados em consideração para o planejamento de medidas de controle da doença no Sul de Santa Catarina.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Fasciola hepatica/patogenicidade , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Prevalência , Mapeamento Geográfico
13.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 45(Especial 3): 71-79, 20213112.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355158

RESUMO

A partir de 2008, o Brasil tornou-se o maior consumidor de agrotóxicos do mundo, mantendo-se nessa posição desde essa época. A Bahia, por sua vez, situou-se, em 2014, como o oitavo estado brasileiro de maior comercialização de agrotóxicos e o primeiro da região Nordeste. Nesse contexto, não surpreende que o agrotóxico seja a terceira maior causa de intoxicação no país e no estado. Apesar da gravidade da situação, a Bahia tem poucas informações sistematizadas sobre agrotóxicos. Os conhecimentos existentes encontram-se dispersos em diversas áreas do setor da saúde e em outros setores. Nesse sentido, este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma ferramenta que disponibiliza informações estruturadas e de fácil acesso aos profissionais de saúde, gestores e comunidade, possibilitando a eles o conhecimento sobre a distribuição dos casos de intoxicação aguda por agrotóxico por macrorregiões, regiões de saúde e municípios. Trata-se do Caderno de Avaliação e Monitoramento da Atenção Básica (Camab), elaborado pela Coordenação de Avaliação e Monitoramento (Coam) da Diretoria de Atenção Básica (DAB) e divulgado no site da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia. A elaboração do Camab foi uma estratégia importante para dar maior visibilidade às questões relacionadas aos agrotóxicos no âmbito da DAB e, consequentemente, nos municípios por ela apoiados. Por fim, acredita-se que o acesso a informações em tempo hábil contribui para o fortalecimento da vigilância e o desenvolvimento das ações de promoção da saúde e prevenção de agravos junto às populações expostas ao potencial risco de intoxicação por agrotóxicos.


From 2008 onwards, Brazil became the world's largest consumer of pesticides. Moreover, Bahia was ranked the eighth Brazilian state with the largest pesticide commercialization in 2014 and the first in the Northeast Region ­ so that, not surprisingly, pesticides are the third leading cause of poisoning in the country and state. Despite the severity of the situation, information on pesticides are little systematized in Bahia, and the available information is dispersed across different health sectors as well as in other fields. This study aims to present a tool that provides structured and easily accessible information on cases of acute pesticide poisoning by macro-regions, health regions, and municipalities to health professionals, managers, and the overall community: the Primary Care Monitoring and Evaluation Booklet (CAMAB). Prepared by the Monitoring and Evaluation Coordination (COAM) of the Primary Care Board (DAB) and published on the website of the Health Department of the State of Bahia, the CAMAB was an important strategy to give greater visibility to pesticide-related issues within the scope of DAB and municipalities supported by it. Timely access to information contributes to the strengthening of surveillance and the development of actions aimed at promoting health and preventing diseases together with populations exposed to the potential risk of poisoning by pesticides.


Desde 2008, Brasil se convirtió en el mayor consumidor de plaguicidas del mundo y ha mantenido esta posición. El estado brasileño de Bahía, en 2014, se ubicó en el octavo puesto con mayor comercialización de plaguicidas y en el primer de la región Nordeste. En este contexto, no es de extrañar que los plaguicidas sean la tercera causa principal de intoxicación en el país y el estado. A pesar de la gravedad de la situación, existe poca información sistematizada sobre plaguicidas en Bahía. Los datos existentes están dispersos en varias áreas del sector salud y en otros sectores. En este sentido, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar una herramienta que brinde información estructurada y de fácil acceso a los profesionales de la salud, los gestores y la comunidad, que les permita conocer la distribución de los casos de intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas por macrorregiones, regiones sanitarias y municipios. Se trata del Cuaderno de Evaluación y Seguimiento de Atención Primaria (Camab), elaborado por la Coordinación de Evaluación y Seguimiento (Coam) de la Junta de Atención Primaria (DAB) y publicado en la página web de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Bahía. La elaboración del Camab fue una estrategia importante para dar mayor visibilidad a los temas relacionados con plaguicidas en el ámbito de la DAB y, en consecuencia, en los municipios apoyados por la misma. Finalmente, el acceso oportuno a la información debe de contribuir al fortalecimiento de la vigilancia y al desarrollo de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención de enfermedades junto con las poblaciones expuestas al riesgo potencial de intoxicación por plaguicidas.


Assuntos
Envenenamento , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Agroquímicos , Acesso à Informação
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 335, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The native potatoes (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L.) grown in Chile (Chiloé) represent a new, unexplored source of endophytes to find potential biological control agents for the prevention of bacterial diseases, like blackleg and soft rot, in potato crops. RESULT: The objective of this study was the selection of endophytic actinobacteria from native potatoes for antagonistic activity against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum, and their potential to suppress tissue maceration symptoms in potato tubers. This potential was determined through the quorum quenching activity using a Chromobacterium violaceaum ATCC 12472 Wild type (WT) bioassay and its colonization behavior of the potato plant root system (S. tuberosum) by means of the Double labeling of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (DOPE-FISH) targeting technique. The results showed that although Streptomyces sp. TP199 and Streptomyces sp. A2R31 were able to inhibit the growth of the pathogens, only the Streptomyces sp. TP199 isolate inhibited Pectobacterium sp. growth and diminished tissue maceration in tubers (p ≤ 0.05). Streptomyces sp. TP199 had metal-dependent acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) quorum quenching activity in vitro and was able to colonize the root endosphere 10 days after inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that native potatoes from southern Chile possess endophyte actinobacteria that are potential agents for the disease management of soft rot and blackleg.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/fisiologia , Antibiose/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Chile , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Pectobacterium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Tubérculos/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum , Streptomyces/classificação , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Streptomyces/fisiologia
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757668, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790645

RESUMO

Background: Robust dog vaccination coverage is the primary way to eliminate canine rabies. Haiti conducts annual canine mass vaccination campaigns, but still has the most human deaths in the Latin American and Caribbean region. We conducted an evaluation of dog vaccination methods in Haiti to determine if more intensive, data-driven vaccination methods, using smartphones for data reporting and geo-communication, could increase vaccination coverage to a level capable of disrupting rabies virus transmission. Methods: Two cities were designated into "Traditional" and "Technology-aided" vaccination areas. Traditional areas utilized historical methods of vaccination staff management, whereas Technology-aided areas used smartphone-supported spatial coordination and management of vaccination teams. Smartphones enabled real time two-way geo-communication between campaign managers and vaccinators. Campaign managers provided geographic instruction to vaccinators by assigning mapped daily vaccination boundaries displayed on phone handsets, whilst vaccinators uploaded spatial data of dogs vaccinated for review by the campaign manager to inform assignment of subsequent vaccination zones. The methods were evaluated for vaccination effort, coverage, and cost. Results: A total of 11,420 dogs were vaccinated during the 14-day campaign. The technology-aided approach achieved 80% estimated vaccination coverage as compared to 44% in traditional areas. Daily vaccination rate was higher in Traditional areas (41.7 vaccinations per team-day) compared to in technology-aided areas (26.8) but resulted in significantly lower vaccination coverages. The cost per dog vaccinated increased exponentially with the associated vaccination coverage, with a cost of $1.86 to achieve 25%, $2.51 for 50% coverage, and $3.19 for 70% coverage. Conclusions: Traditional vaccination methods failed to achieve sufficiently high vaccination coverages needed to interrupt sustained rabies virus transmission, whilst the technology-aided approach increased coverage above this critical threshold. Over successive campaigns, this difference is likely to represent the success or failure of the intervention in eliminating the rabies virus. Technology-aided vaccination should be considered in resource limited settings where rabies has not been controlled by Traditional vaccination methods. The use of technology to direct health care workers based on near-real-time spatial data from the field has myriad potential applications in other vaccination and public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Vacinação em Massa , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(10): e0009885, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is a parasitic helminth that imposes a major health and economic burden on poor rural populations around the world. As recognized by the World Health Organization, a key barrier for achieving control of T. solium is the lack of an accurate and validated simulation model with which to study transmission and evaluate available control and elimination strategies. CystiAgent is a spatially-explicit agent based model for T. solium that is unique among T. solium models in its ability to represent key spatial and environmental features of transmission and simulate spatially targeted interventions, such as ring strategy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We validated CystiAgent against results from the Ring Strategy Trial (RST)-a large cluster-randomized trial conducted in northern Peru that evaluated six unique interventions for T. solium control in 23 villages. For the validation, each intervention strategy was replicated in CystiAgent, and the simulated prevalences of human taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, and porcine seroincidence were compared against prevalence estimates from the trial. Results showed that CystiAgent produced declines in transmission in response to each of the six intervention strategies, but overestimated the effect of interventions in the majority of villages; simulated prevalences for human taenasis and porcine cysticercosis at the end of the trial were a median of 0.53 and 5.0 percentages points less than prevalence observed at the end of the trial, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The validation of CystiAgent represented an important step towards developing an accurate and reliable T. solium transmission model that can be deployed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of T. solium transmission and control. To improve model accuracy, future versions would benefit from improved data on pig immunity and resistance, field effectiveness of anti-helminthic treatment, and factors driving spatial clustering of T. solium infections including dispersion and contact with T. solium eggs in the environment.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/transmissão , Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia solium/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia solium/genética , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 503, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617164

RESUMO

Seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in herds and cattle were estimated by a cross-sectional study in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The state was divided into seven regions and a random, two-stage sampling was performed on properties and cattle from each region between 2018 and 2019. Serum samples were collected from 11,592 cows over 24 months from 1,757 properties and a questionnaire was applied to identify potential risk factors. As recommended by the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (PNCEBT), serological testing for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies included the buffered plate agglutination test (screening test) and the fluorescence polarization assay (confirmatory test). The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis on properties and in cattle was 4.87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.98-5.93%) and 2.24% (95% CI: 1.47-3.41%), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified larger herd size and failure to test for brucellosis as risk factors for the presence of anti-B. abortus antibodies. These results demonstrate no change in the prevalence when comparing initial studies conducted in 2002. Given our findings, it is recommended that policies for brucellosis control include a widespread vaccination program for higher prevalence areas and eradication approach to lower prevalence areas. All steps related to correct immunization of the herds should be verified and improved by training and education. Health education action must be carried out informing farmers about the risks of introducing animals not tested for brucellosis into their herds and the benefits of testing their herds regularly.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(4): 206-210, out./dez. 2021. il.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363766

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution. Dogs are considered sentinel animals, useful for the detection of environmental infections and outbreaks of disease through serological surveys. Considering this, we aimed to assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in dogs from rural areas of the hinterland of the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. A total of 77 blood samples were collected from dogs and analyzed by the Indirect Hemagglutination test for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies Samples were considered positive when titers greater than or equal to 1:16 were observed. In addition, an epidemiological questionnaire designed to identify characteristics of the animal was performed to owners regarding sex, breed, age, sterilization, access to areas outside the house, environmental hygiene, contact with other animals and dog food. A total of 49.3% of dogs (n = 38) were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies, most with high titers (44.7%). A higher relative frequency of seropositivity was observed in male dogs, not sterilized, mixed breed, which were fed exclusively on homemade food and had access to the street and contact with other animals. Taken together, our data reinforce the importance of developing health education actions within the scope of public health aimed at preventing this zoonosis.


Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário com distribuição mundial. Os cães são considerados animais sentinela, úteis para a detecção de infecções ambientais e surtos da doença por meio de levantamentos sorológicos. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a soroprevalência da toxoplasmose em cães da zona rural da região rural do Alto Sertão Sergipano, Brasil. Um total de 77 amostras de sangue de cães foram coletadas no município de Nossa Senhora da Glória, Sergipe e submetidas ao teste de Hemaglutinação Indireta para detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii, considerando títulos maiores ou iguais a 1:16 como positivos. Além disso, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico aos proprietários solicitando informações sobre sexo, raça, idade, esterilização, acesso às ruas, limpeza do ambiente, contato com outros animais e ração, além de dados do proprietário, como renda familiar e nível de educação. 49,3% dos cães (38/77) apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, a maioria com títulos elevados (44,7%). Foi observado maior frequência relativa de soropositividade em cães macho, não esterilizados, sem raça definida, que se alimentam exclusivamente de comida caseira e tem acesso a rua e contato com outros animais. Os dados obtidos reforçam a importância do desenvolvimento de ações de educação em saúde no âmbito da saúde pública voltadas à prevenção dessa zoonose.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose , Cães , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zona Rural
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(6): 1582-1589, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491218

RESUMO

Elimination of dog-transmitted human rabies worldwide will require large-scale dog vaccination campaigns. However, this places participating vaccinators at increased risk. Data from the 2016-2017 Haitian mass rabies vaccination campaign was analyzed to determine dog bite incidence among vaccinators. A survey was then developed for completion by all identifiable bitten vaccinators covering demographics; experience and training; bite episode details; attitudes toward dogs and rabies; and medical care. A parallel group of unbitten vaccinators was also surveyed. Dog bite incidence was 0.03% (43/127,000) of all dogs vaccinated. The capture, vaccinate, and release method of vaccination carried a significantly higher risk of dog bite (0.35%, 6/1,739 vaccinations) than other methods (P < 0.001). Twenty-seven bitten vaccinators, and 54 control vaccinators were included in the survey analysis. No differences were found between groups in demographics, experience, or training. However, bitten vaccinators were significantly more likely than the control group to have experienced a dog bite before the study period (P < 0.001). This may be associated with a lesser appreciation of dogs, and/or a poorer ability to interpret dog behavioral signals within this group. Although 98% of the control group indicated they would seek medical care for a dog bite, only 35% of bitten vaccinators sought such care. On a yearly basis, for the Haitian campaign, a full series of postexposure rabies vaccinations for all bite victims would prove more cost-effective than preexposure vaccination of all vaccinators. These findings may prove useful for the planning and safety of future mass dog vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa , Raiva/veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2389-2398, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424165

RESUMO

Optimal control strategies for Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis have not been determined. We conducted a 2-year cluster randomized trial in Peru by assigning 23 villages to 1 of 3 geographically targeted intervention approaches. For ring screening (RS), participants living near pigs with cysticercosis were screened for taeniasis; identified cases were treated with niclosamide. In ring treatment (RT), participants living near pigs with cysticercosis received presumptive treatment with niclosamide. In mass treatment (MT), participants received niclosamide treatment every 6 months regardless of location. In each approach, half the villages received targeted or mass oxfendazole for pigs (6 total study arms). We noted significant reductions in seroincidence among pigs in all approaches (67.1% decrease in RS, 69.3% in RT, 64.7% in MT; p<0.001), despite a smaller proportion of population treated by targeted approaches (RS 1.4%, RT 19.3%, MT 88.5%). Our findings suggest multiple approaches can achieve rapid control of T. solium transmission.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Taenia solium , Animais , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Peru/epidemiologia , Suínos
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